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Aralia genus from the Araliaceae family, includes more than 35 species growing in Australia, Asia, North America. "Aralia" - so the Canadian Indians called the species of this genus growing in North America. It is an ornamental, medicinal and melliferous plant that grows singly or in small groups. In the middle lane, such a view as Manchurian Aralia or high feels great. Plants of this species have been used in culture since the middle of the 19th century.
Species of this genus are deciduous trees, branchy at the apex, usually with a thorny trunk, or shrubs, or perennial grasses. Some specimens may be no more than 50cm in height, while other species grow up to 20m in height. The leaves of the aralia are alternate, without stipules, compound, pinnate, with long petioles. The leaves are collected at the tops of the shoots, so aralia has an external resemblance to a palm tree. Small bisexual flowers are collected in umbrellas, umbrellas - in large paniculate inflorescences, sometimes - in a brush. The fruit is berry-shaped, dark purple, spherical, fleshy. All parts of aralia contain toxins - alkaloids and saponins.
The most common species in culture can be called high aralia, or Manchu (Aralia elata or Aralia mandhurica) and cordate aralia, or Schmidt (Aralia cordata or Aralia schmidtiana)... The Manchu Aralia is popularly called a thorn-tree or a devil's club due to the fact that its trunk is studded with large thorns. It is very beautiful during the flowering period, at the end of summer, and attracts not only looks, but also bees, as it is a good honey plant. Aralia cordate is a herbaceous perennial with a fragrant, fleshy rhizome. Leaves up to 50cm long, creamy greenish or yellowish flowers, collected in umbrellas that form a panicle. Blooms in July-September. Both plants in nature are distributed mainly in Asia, in the Far East.
Growing aralia and care
In the culture, Aralia is used in single or group plantings in parks, gardens and squares. On household plots, with its help, a hedge is formed. Aralia, although photophilous, prefers partial shade. She is hardy. In severe frosts, Aralia sometimes freezes to the root collar, but recovers very quickly. Well-drained, fertile soil is preferable. Loves moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water at the roots in spring. It is best to plant aralia in the fall, when the trees no longer have leaves, or in early spring before the buds swell. In the fall, after planting, it is necessary to mulch the soil for the winter with a three to four centimeter layer of peat.
From time to time, aralia needs weeding and loosening of the soil. You need to loosen the soil carefully, trying not to damage the roots, otherwise the aralia will have a hard time in winter. Of fertilizers, it reacts well to organic (manure) and mineral fertilizers, which are introduced into the soil at the beginning of the growing season and during the budding period. As it grows, the curtain is formed, removing unnecessary shoots. Aralia propagates by seeds and root cuttings. Seed propagation is not an amateur process, it is very complex and specific. It is easier to plant root cuttings or rhizomes to a depth of 6-10 cm in spring.
The healing properties of aralia
Preparations from Manchurian aralia used to stimulate the heart, reduce the duration of sleep under the influence of drugs. The roots of the plant successfully replace ginseng. Preparations from them are used to improve the general condition of seriously ill patients, relieve mental and physical fatigue. With hypotension or asthenia, with post-traumatic depression and neurasthenic reactions, with schizophrenia, impotence, amenorrhea and other severe nervous and mental abnormalities, tincture from Manchurian aralia is used with great success. At home, a decoction of the roots of aralia is used to treat colds, diabetes, enuresis, inflammation of the oral mucosa and other diseases.
Sections: Honey plants
How to choose the right plant when buying
The house plant is always pleasing to the eye, decorating the interior design and purifying the air in the room. Perhaps it is difficult to find a person who has not thought about buying a green plant for his home. It seems that caring for a home plant is simple. But very often it happens that the house plant begins to feel bad and soon dies. How to choose a home plant so that it pleases the eye of the owner and decorates the room? There are some important factors to consider.
The appearance of a home plant.
Consider the location before buying a houseplant. After all, some flowers need a lot of space, and some are compactly placed on the windowsill next to other plants. Think about how much space you could allocate in your apartment for a home plant. Also, the interior plays a huge role in the selection of colors. The plant should complement the design of the apartment, and not create disharmony.
Conditions for keeping a home plant.
Perhaps you liked a plant for which the optimum temperature is 12 ° C, and your apartment is very warm and the temperature does not drop below 22 ° C? It is worth refusing to purchase it. A green friend will not be able to delight your eyes for a long time. It is worth paying attention to the following characteristics: humidity, temperature, lighting level, (partial shade, shade, direct sunlight), sensitivity to drafts, watering frequency. Choose those indoor plants that fit the parameters in your home.
Hardiness of indoor plants.
There are plants that are extremely unpretentious. You can water them once a month and do not think too much about fertilization. Others require increased attention in care (frequent watering, pruning, regular transplanting, spraying). If you do not have much time to care for whimsical plants, then it is better not to purchase them.
The state of the home plant at the time of purchase.
Considering all of the above factors and keeping your eyes on a specific plant, do an inspection before buying it. It is recommended to buy flowering house plants not during the flowering period. Better to wait for the house to bloom. The foliage should be evenly distributed. The leaves of a healthy plant should not have lethargy, the tips of the leaves should not be bent or dry, this is permissible only in some palms, which are considered the norm, this state of foliage. And also the following should not be observed: drying, yellowness, damage, various types of plaque. There should be no lichens or mosses on the surface of the substrate. This is only permissible with bonsai. The stems of the plant must be strong and resilient. Check carefully for insect pests, if insects are found, refuse to buy a plant. Also, the plant should not be cramped in the pot, and if you find protruding roots, then immediately purchase a larger pot for subsequent transplantation.
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Planting goldenrod in the ground
When sowing goldenrod, it should be borne in mind that its seeds become non-germinating relatively quickly. In some species, seeds do not form at all, and in some, they do not have enough time to fully mature. However, there are also species that reproduce well by self-seeding. In this regard, seed propagation of goldenrod is not very popular with gardeners.
But it is still possible to grow such a flower from seeds, and it is recommended to do this through seedlings. The container is filled with soil mixture, and seeds are evenly distributed over its surface. Then the container must be covered from above with a film or glass and removed to a warm (from 18 to 22 degrees) and well-lit place. The first seedlings should appear after 15–20 days.
It will be much easier and safer to buy ready-made seedlings in a garden pavilion, while they can be planted in open soil both in spring and in autumn. It is necessary to choose bushes that are strong and branched, there should be no specks and plaque on their surface, also carefully examine them for the presence of harmful insects.
For growing such a frost-resistant plant, you can choose a sunny or shaded area. Any soil is suitable, but best of all, such grass grows on wet and heavy soil, in this regard, during the preparation of the site for planting, it is not necessary to add baking powder (including sand) to the ground. During planting, a distance of at least 0.4 m is maintained between the bushes. Depending on the type and variety of the plant, 2 to 5 bushes should be planted on 1 square meter of land.
Aralia Manchu. Application in medicine. Planting and leaving
In official medicine, tincture from the roots of Manchurian aralia is used
Manchurian Aralia (Aralia mandchurica Rupr. Et Maxim.) belongs the Araliaceae family... In recent years, it is more common under the name Aralia high (Aralia elata / Miq./ Seem.). There are 35 species of this plant in the world, of which 3 grow in Russia. The people call aralia "Thorn tree", "damn tree".
In our country, it grows wild in small groups in the cedar-deciduous forests of the Sikhote-Alin. Often forms hard-to-pass thickets in places of forests that have disappeared as a result of fires and felling. Its range covers the southeastern regions of the Amur Region, almost the entire Primorsky Territory and the south of the Khabarovsk Territory.
Application in medicine of Manchurian aralia
Medicinal value have roots of aralia manchucontaining biologically active chemicals - aralosides A, B and C, related to triterpene glycosides. In addition, small amounts of alkaloids are found in the roots, including aralia, choline, as well as proteins, starch, carbohydrates, essential oil, tannins and mineral salts.
IN official medicine uses a tincture from the roots of Manchurian aralia as an aphrodisiac the central nervous system in asthenic syndrome, asthenoneurotic conditions, post-traumatic asthenia on the basis of chronic neurological diseases, with mental and physical fatigue, hypotension and impotence... The tincture is taken 30-40 drops 2-3 times a day. Store in a dark place.
The medical industry produces the drug saparal, which has a similar effect and consists of the sum of aralosides A, B and C. It is prescribed 1 tablet (0.05 g) 2-3 times a day (morning and afternoon) after meals. The course of treatment is 15-30 days. The drug has a slight toxicity, so it should only be taken as directed by a doctor.
Aralia dosage forms stimulate not only the central nervous system, but also the cardiovascular system, and also increase muscle strength, increase appetite, and improve the general well-being of patients.
Planting and caring for Manchurian aralia
Aralia Manchurian is a small tree, from 3 to 4 m in height, sometimes up to 12 m. It has a developed root system, consisting mainly of roots up to 5 cm in diameter, located horizontally in the soil. The peculiar trunk of aralia is covered with light wrinkled bark, covered with numerous thorns. Lateral shoots are usually absent or are concentrated in small numbers at the very top of the main shoots. Leaves are alternate, up to 1 m long, sitting on long petioles, double or triple pinnate, often with long thorns. The leaves are oval or ovoid, with a pointed apex and a rounded base. Small flowers of white or cream color are collected in umbrellas, forming complex multi-flowered inflorescences, consisting of 4-8 apical panicles. Fruits are spherical, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, blue-black, with 5 seeds. Seeds are oblong-elongated, light brown or grayish, up to 2.5 mm long, 1.7 mm wide.
Aralia begins to bloom and bear fruit most often in the 6-8th year of life, some specimens - on the 4th - 5th. The beginning of flowering is observed in the second half of July - August, the end - in August - September. Fruit ripening usually occurs in September, but not annually.
Aralia is propagated by seeds and vegetatively - by root cuttings and root suckers.
The site intended for sowing and planting cuttings should be flat in relief, with fertile, structural, sufficiently moist soils. In autumn, manure or peat compost is introduced for digging at the rate of 6 kg / m 2.
Manchurian aralia seeds do not germinate well... To obtain seedlings in the year of sowing, they must be stratified at variable temperatures or treated with gibberellin. Optimal periods of stratification are 3-4 months at a temperature of 14-20 ° C and 4 months at a temperature of 2-5 ° C.
After such preparation, when sowing in open ground, seedlings appear in 7-8 months. When using gibberellic acid, the optimal seed treatment period is 24 hours at various concentrations: 0.05%, 0.25 and 0.1%. A positive experience was obtained with the use of gibberellin at a concentration of 0.05% for two days, followed by two months of stratification at a temperature of 0-5 ° C (in a refrigerator).
After processing, the seeds are washed with tap water and kept for 1 to 3 months at a temperature of 18–20 ° C until germination.It is better to sow seeds directly into the holes, well filled with an organic-mineral mixture per hole: 3 kg of manure or compost and 20-30 g of nitroammofoska.
Early spring sowing is carried out at the end of April with stratified seeds. Freshly harvested seeds can be sown in the fall (late August - early September) to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. The seeding rate of seeds is 10-12 kg / ha, the distance between the holes is 50-60 cm. After sowing, the rows are sprinkled with humus or peat crumb mixed with earth. In this case, seedlings appear the next year.
Manchurian aralia seeds lose germination relatively quickly... Therefore, it is not recommended to store them for more than 1.5 years.
Root cuttings and rhizome cuttings are best planted in early spring before the buds grow back. The embedment depth should not exceed 5-6 cm.
Root offspring are also planted in the spring in planting pits prepared according to the type of fruit crops, well filled with fertilizers.
Caring for plants, especially in the early years, consists of 3-4 hoes and weeding. Aralia needs feeding with nitroammophos at the rate of 20-30 g for each plant. Responds well to organic feeding with slurry during the growing season: in early spring and during budding... During the fruiting period, aralia sets a large number of fruits. One plant is capable of forming up to 60 thousand of them, but the main part does not ripen.
Manchurian aralia roots are best harvested in autumn - in September or early spring (before the leaves bloom). At this time, the highest content of active substances is observed in them.
The dug roots are cleaned of soil, cut into cylindrical pieces (1-3 cm in diameter) and dried in dryers at a temperature of 60 ° C. The surplus grown can be taken to pharmacies.
The shelf life of raw materials is 3 years.
Useful properties of aralia
Aralia also has another name - "sister of ginseng". And this is really so: she is a very close relative to him. Both of these plants are from the same family and have similar healing properties.
Manchu Aralia roots are a complete substitute for ginseng. They contain glycosidic substances, saponins, resins, essential oils, fatty acids, vitamins C, B1, B2 and others. Recent studies have shown that aralia leaves have a similar effect.
The drug Separal obtained from the roots of aralia, as well as a tincture from the roots of aralia, in official medicine are used as prescribed by a doctor for diseases of the central nervous system, in the treatment of chronic neuralgic diseases and in the initial stages of atherosclerosis.
Aralia tincture improves overall well-being, increases appetite and performance. It is useful after serious illness, physical and mental fatigue, hypotension, impotence. Aralia tincture gives a special effect after a severe flu. In patients with diabetes mellitus, blood sugar levels are significantly reduced.
To prepare aralia tincture at home, you need to grind the dried root strongly, pour 70% alcohol in a ratio of 1: 8, close the dishes tightly and insist in a dark place for 18–20 days. The finished tincture is a clear amber liquid with a rather pleasant taste.
The tincture is taken 25-30 drops 2-3 times a day 10 minutes before meals for 30 days. Then you need to take a break for 15–20 days. With a tendency to high blood pressure, the dose should be reduced to 10 drops per dose.
Remember. Aralia tincture prepared at home should be used only under the supervision of the attending physician. And with hypertension, increased nervous excitability and insomnia, it cannot be used at all. It should also not be taken in the evening to avoid disturbing sleep at night.
The positive effect of treatment with aralia tincture is observed by the end of the second week, sleep improves, and efficiency returns. This tincture stimulates not only the nervous, but also the cardiovascular system, increases muscle strength, and improves well-being.
Aralia is widely used as part of medicinal preparations. A significant tonic effect is possessed by a collection consisting of 2 hours of aralia root, 3 hours of elecampane root, 2 hours of oregano herb, 1 hour of mint herb, 2 hours of strawberry herb, 3 hours of nettle herb. To prepare the infusion, you need 1 tbsp. pour a spoonful of collection with 1 glass of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes, drain. Take 0.75 cups 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
In diabetes mellitus, a collection is often used, consisting of 2 hours of aralia root, 3 hours of blueberry leaves, 2 hours of beans, 2 hours of flax seeds, 3 hours of oat straw, 2 hours of horsetail herb, 3 hours of root elecampane. To prepare the infusion, you need 1 tbsp. pour a spoonful of the mixture with a glass of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes, drain. Take 0.75 cups 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
Aralia is also used in cosmetics. Juice or infusion of leaves and a decoction of aralia roots are added to nourishing creams for any skin. They tone it up, make it velvety and tender. Aralia broth rinses hair to improve their growth.
Based on materials from the newspaper "Ural Gardener"
Photo: Rita Brilliantova, Maxim Minin
If none of the methods helped, there are still folds, then you can iron the thing with an iron, but it can only be applied to jackets that made of genuine leather... A jacket made of leatherette cannot be ironed with an iron, because the product may deteriorate, crack or melt.
- The product must be turned inside out
- In order not to damage the lining and leather, you need to cover the product with a special cloth that intended for ironing
- Turn off steam at the iron and put it on the minimum heating mode
- Apply an iron to the dented places, pressing lightly
- After that, the product must be shaken and hung on a hanger.
And there is also another way: the jacket can be smoothed out using a press from any available heavy material. This method is more suitable for artificial leather products... To do this, put the product on the table, straighten it, and then carefully put the prepared press on top. In this state, leave the jacket for one night, and in the morning hang it on a hanger for several hours so that it hangs down.